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Archive for the ‘JPSS Proving Ground’ Category

I wanted to follow up with this sooner, but I’ve been rather busy preparing for the NWA conference.  Yep, I tend to be one of those “last-minute” people.  Anyway, just last week I posted an example showcasing the advantage of the VIIRS Day-Night Band Radiance RGB in detecting fog through cirrus clouds.  The next day, SPoRT collaborator Doug Schneider (Morristown WFO), followed up with another great example that I wanted to share.  I’m just going to take an excerpt from an email he sent to the Morristown staff…

“I know I’ve been sending out quite a few emails lately about NASA SPoRT products, so please bear with me, but I thought this was a great example of how they can add value.

I’ve mentioned the MODIS/VIIRS Fog product before, but sometimes there are better products available for identifying fog, especially when thin cirrus are present. In the MODISVIIRS Fog product image that is attached, you can see that it is difficult to see the extent of fog. There’s clearly some in the Sequatchie Valley, but there is also some in the NE TN/SW VA area that can’t be easily seen.

The attached MODIS/VIIRS Nighttime Microphysics product also shows fog in the southern areas where it is clear (fog is light blue colors), but cirrus obscures NE sections.

The VIIRS Day/Night Band Radiance RGB product does the best job showing the extent of fog. Fog is clearly identified in the valleys of SW VA and NE TN, despite the presence of cirrus. The extent of fog is also more easily seen in the central and southern valley areas.

The attached menu image shows where you can find the Day/Night Band Radiance RGB product under the Satellite -> NASA SPoRT -> Polar Imager -> MODIS/VIIRS -> SR East menus.

Remember that these products are from a polar-orbiting satellite, and may only be available once a night, usually between 07z and 10z.”

I’ve included the images he referenced below, and circled the specific area of fog in NE Tennessee / SW Virginia that he was mentioning.

Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band Radiance RGB, 0724 UTC 10 Oct 2014.  Circled area shows valley fog not detectable in subsequent GOES or VIIRS NT Microphysics images.

Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band Radiance RGB, 0724 UTC 10 Oct 2014. Circled area shows valley fog not detectable in subsequent GOES or VIIRS NT Microphysics images.

Suomi-NPP VIIRS 11-3.9 um image, 0724 UTC 10 Oct 2014.  Notice that high cirrus clouds (blue colors) obscure the fog below.

Suomi-NPP VIIRS 11-3.9 um image, 0724 UTC 10 Oct 2014. Notice that high cirrus clouds (blue colors) obscure the fog below.

Suomi-NPP VIIRS Nighttime Microphysics RGB, 0724 UTC 10 Oct 2014.  Fog can be seen in other areas to the south/southwest, but not beneath the cold, cirrus clouds (under the yellow circle) since this RGB recipe contains multi-spectral IR components.

Suomi-NPP VIIRS Nighttime Microphysics RGB, 0724 UTC 10 Oct 2014. Fog can be seen in other areas to the south/southwest, but not beneath the cold, cirrus clouds (under the yellow circle) since this RGB recipe contains multi-spectral IR components.

This is exactly the kind of inter-office sharing SPoRT is looking for from our close partners.  We greatly thank Doug and the Morristown office for their collaborative efforts!

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I’ve blogged about this particular use of VIIRS Day-Night Band imagery before, but wanted to take a moment to showcase this excellent example from last night.  In the early morning hours of Thursday, Oct 9th, fog began developing in the valleys of Jackson County, AL (denoted by the yellow circle), as it often does on nights with high relative humidity and light winds.  Of course, save for a scant observation or two, a forecaster would not have known because of the presence of high, thin cirrus clouds that obscured the fog below.  Take a look at this GOES-IR image from early that morning (Image 1).

Image.  GOES-IR image over northern Alabama and surrounding areas, valid 0745 UTC 9 October 2014

Since this is an IR image, temperatures from the colder cirrus clouds saturate the instrument signal across northeastern portions of Alabama, where the fog occurred.  Clearly, fog could not be discerned in this type of imagery due to the presence of cirrus.  Next, let’s take a look at a Nighttime Microphysics RGB image from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS instrument valid at about the same time (Image 2).

Image 2. Nighttime Microphysics RGB from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS instrument, valid 0743 UTC 9 October 2014

Even here (in what has become favorite imagery of mine) the fog is not clearly detectable.  Perhaps a faint hint of fog, indicated by a narrow sliver of whitish-gray can be seen in the far northwest corner of Jackson County.  Nevertheless, since this RGB recipe utilizes different IR components, the cirrus once again obscures the fog below.  Now, let’s take a look at SPoRT”s Day-Night Band Radiance RGB valid at the same time (Image 3).

Image 3.  Day-Night Band Radiance RGB from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS instrument, valid 0743 UTC 9 October 2014

The fog is much more clearly observed in this imagery since thin cirrus are mostly translucent in the VIIRS nighttime visible band.  This image, as stated, is an RGB and also employs a longwave IR channel (~11 µm), giving the cirrus a blue appearance.

Visibility observations are only available from one site in this area, at the Scottsboro, AL airport, which is located near the center of the circle.  At 0800 UTC, the visibility at the location was 7 SM, but dropped to 1/4 SM by 0900 UTC.  However, that is just one small point location.  Forecasters really need a better understanding of the extent of the fog for special weather statements or dense fog advisories that address the threat.  After viewing the Day-Night Band imagery for well over a year now, I think the ability to see fog and other phenomena through cirrus at night is one of the best applications of the DNB imagery, at least from an operational forecast perspective.

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From September 20 through September 23, 2014, the Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) was monitoring the development of the season’s first hurricane-force extratropical storm in the East Pacific.  Models were suggesting a marginal hurricane-force wind event would unfold well west of the Pacific Northwest, near 140W longitude, north of 40N latitude.  OPC is routinely using satellite data to monitor and forecast these strong ocean storms.  On this particular event, OPC forecaster James Kells collaborated with Michael Rowland and David Kosier on if and when to pull the trigger on the hurricane-force warning.

GOES-15 6.5 um water vapor animation showing the evolution of the hurricane-force low.

GOES-15 6.5 um water vapor animation showing the evolution of the hurricane-force low.

The above animation shows the evolution of the hurricane-force low, with an eye-like feature evident near the end of the loop.  By 1200 UTC on the 23rd, it was forecast to develop hurricane force winds (64 knots or greater) just west of Oregon near 140W.  During the production of the 1200 UTC OPC Surface Analysis, there was question of whether or not the winds had reached hurricane force intensity. The ASCAT pass from ~0600 UTC showed a large area of 50-55 knot winds in the strong cold advection south of the low center, and the GFS model indicated that the system was still developing.  The GFS 0-30m boundary layer winds also indicated a very small area with hurricane force intensity.

Advanced Scatterometers A and B overlaid on GOES-15 Infrared imagery showing storm force winds at ~0600 UTC on 09/23/14.

Advanced Scatterometers A and B overlaid on GOES-15 Infrared imagery showing storm force winds at ~0600 UTC on 09/23/14.

The 1130 UTC MODIS RGB Air Mass product was timelier, and it showed an area of downward momentum south of the low with the deep purple shading. The corresponding water vapor image was less clear with upper level moisture obscuring the downward motion just beneath it.   In addition, there were no surface reports south of the low center as there were no buoys moored nor drifting in that vicinity.  Furthermore, most ships were aware of the danger and navigated away from the region neglecting the possibility of a surface report in the area of question.

Aqua MODIS RGB Air Mass image from 1130 UTC on 09/23/14.

Aqua MODIS RGB Air Mass image from 1130 UTC on 09/23/14.

A cross-section of the 1200 UTC 09/23/14 GFS model potential temperature and dew point temperature was taken through the low center in order to analyze the depth of the stratospheric intrusion, and also to gauge the magnitude of the downward momentum.  It showed a deep stratospheric intrusion to roughly 500 hPa, and it corroborated the strong downward momentum indicated by the imagery.  The RGB Air Mass image showed the intensity of the downward momentum through the red/purple coloring and gave a good indication of the stronger winds aloft mixing down toward the surface.  The imagery increased confidence with classifying the system as a hurricane force low.

The 1200 UTC 09/23/14 GFS vertical cross-section of potential temperature and dewpoint showing the downward transport of drier air associated with the tropopause fold.

The 1200 UTC 09/23/14 GFS vertical cross-section of potential temperature and dewpoint showing the downward transport of drier air associated with the tropopause fold.

The 1200 UTC 09/23/14 OPC surface analysis.

The 1200 UTC 09/23/14 OPC surface analysis.

~ Guest blogger, James Kells (OPC)

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A unique weather event is unfolding this week as Hurricane Odile, now a tropical storm, is impacting Baja California Sur, bringing heavy rain and high winds to the region and causing tourists to evacuate resorts. The National Hurricane Center reports that Odile ties Olivia (1967) as the strongest hurricane to make landfall in the satellite era in Baja California Sur**. NASA SPoRT provides specialized satellite products to National Weather Service Forecast Offices as well as National Centers such as the National Hurricane Center to aid forecasting high impact events such as Hurricane Odile.

Below is an example of Passive Microwave RGB imagery created from the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission as part of The Core Observatory satellite launched on 27 February 2014. The images are in N-AWIPS (National Centers for Environmental Prediction Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System) format and are an example of products available to forecasters at the National Hurricane Center.  Forecasters use the 89 GHz RGB product to look for areas of strong convection which show up as deep red as seen in Fig. 1 which captures Hurricane Odile a few hours before landfall.

89 GHz RGB 0121 UTC 15 September 2014. Areas of deep convection appear red and can be seen surrounding the eye wall and within the rainbands of Odile in this image a few hours before landfall.

Figure 1. GMI 89 GHz RGB 0121 UTC 15 September 2014. Areas of deep convection appear red and can be seen surrounding the eye and within the rainbands of Hurricane Odile in this image a few hours before landfall.

The 37 GHz can additionally be used to distinguish areas of deep cloudiness (light blue) from more active convection (pink) as well as open water (green) or land (cyan).  Note the areas of pink or active convective in Fig. 2 surrounding the eye and within the rainbands.

odile_37RGB1

Figure 2. GMI 37 GHz RGB 0121 UTC 15 September 2014. Areas of active convection appear pink and can be seen surrounding the eye and within the rainbands of Hurricane Odile in this image a few hours before landfall.

Figure 3 and 4 show similar observations from the legacy NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) as Hurricane Odile made landfall near Cabo San Lucas around 445 UTC 15 September. TRMM is expected to run out of fuel by February 2016 and will no longer be available to collect valuable observations. We are well prepared for a replacement with GPM in orbit and already collecting observations.

TRMM 89 GHz RGB 0307 UTC 15 September 2014

Figure 3. TRMM 89 GHz RGB 0307 UTC 15 September 2014.  Areas of deep convection appear red and can be seen surrounding the eye and within the rainbands of Hurricane Odile in this image a little over one hour before landfall.

TRMM 37 GHz RGB

Figure 4. TRMM 37 GHz RGB 0307 UTC 15 September 2014.  Areas of active convection appear pink and can be seen surrounding the eye and within the rainbands of Hurricane Odile in this image a little over one hour before landfall.

Additionally the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day-Night Band Radiance imagery from the next generation NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite shows an impressive picture of Hurricane Odile approximately one day before landfall (Fig. 5). Note the city lights that can be seen through the clouds in Fig. 5 as well as lightning within the area of convection in the rainband. This imagery can be used to support disaster response and help emergency managers identify the areas where conditions have caused power outages. Local knowledge of city light patterns can allow users to identify where the most significant power outages are and determine where to begin relief efforts.

VIIRS Day-Night Band Radiance

Figure 5. VIIRS Day-Night Band Radiance 0904 UTC 14 September 2014. City lights and lightning observed approximately one day before Hurricane Odile made landfall.

As the community transitions from legacy instruments such at TRMM and MODIS, NASA SPoRT will continue to develop unique products from Next-Generation missions such as GPM and Suomi NPP to aid National Weather Service Forecast Offices and National Centers in forecasting high impact events such as Hurricane Odile.

**see archived National Hurricane Center forecast discussion at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2014/ep15/ep152014.discus.021.shtml?

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Kevin Fuell:

Here is an excellent satellite imagery interpretation by Paul Nutter of the Great Falls WFO regarding the Nighttime Microphysics RGB. As Paul demonstrates with his ability to describe this image and support its value based on current imagery, training and continued experience can lead to efficient use of RGB-type imagery.

Originally posted on TFX-shoptalk:

A strong early season cold front pushed through Montana from Alberta on 9 September 2014. The front produced several layers of cloud cover that appeared richly on the Nighttime Microphysics RGB imagery. This provides an excellent case for a study of capabilities we expect to have available on the GOES-R platform.

WPC Daily Weather Map valid 12 UTC 9 Sept 2014

WPC Daily Weather Map valid 12 UTC 9 Sept 2014

SPoRT VIIRS Night-time Microphysics RGB valid 0844 UTC 09-Sep-2014.

SPoRT VIIRS Night-time Microphysics RGB valid 0844 UTC 09-Sep-2014.

Table 1. Wavelength Band or band difference contributions to the RGB triplets and their physical interpretation used within the Nighttime Microphysics RGB composite imagery.

Color Band / Band Diff. Physically Relates to: Little contribution to composite indicates: Large contribution to composite indicates:
Red 12.0 – 10.8 Optical Depth Thin clouds Thick clouds
Green 10.8 – 3.9 Particle Phase and Size Ice particles;
Surface (i.e. cloud free)
Water clouds with
small particles
Blue 10.8 Temperature of surface Cold surface Warm surface

Violet colored…

View original 587 more words

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Kevin Fuell:

Here is a posted application of the VIIRS Day-Night Band by the NWS Forecast Office in Great Falls. It was posted on their local blog.

Originally posted on TFX-shoptalk:

Clear skies and a bright moon in the early morning hours on September 12th 2014 allowed for good view of the extent of recent snowfall on the VIIRS Day-Night Band Reflectance imagery. At 1km resolution it’s about as detailed as a GOES visible image during daylight.

-Bob

VIIRS_DNB_ref_201409120930z_state_snow


Image1: Note Calgary’s location (bright city lights) on the eastern flank of the snowfield. east of the Canadian Rockies.

Viirs_snow_tfx

Image 2: Closer look at the TFX CWA

VIIRS_snow_RMF

Image3: Good detail of the extend of snowfall along the Rocky Mtn Front.

View original

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It is said that a picture says a thousand words…well in this case let’s just say 434 words, as are contained in this post. Anyway, I’d like to point out six features in this morning’s Nighttime Microphysics RGB.  The image below (MODIS Nighttime Microphysics RGB) showed several features of varying degrees of operational relevance.

MODIS Nighttime Microphysics RGB with annotations valid 0755 UTC 16 July 2014

MODIS Nighttime Microphysics RGB with annotations valid 0755 UTC 16 July 2014

 

A myriad of cloud features can be observed, including fog in the valleys of central Appalachia, deep convective clouds along the Florida coast, patches of thin and thick cirrus over north-central Alabama, and low stratus clouds in Missouri…to name just a few.  Sure, this isn’t an exhaustive list of the potential cloud features to observe, but showcases the ability to contrast effectively between different cloud types.  Of perhaps significant interest is the ability to see the contrasting airmasses displayed across the Southeast region.  Notice the  pinkish colors north and west of the yellow curved line that stretches from central Louisiana to southern Virginia.  This represents a lower relative contribution of blue color, or lesser longwave radiation at the 10.8 µm wavelength, which is indicative of cooler temperatures.  To the south and east of this line, much more blue is apparent, which is thus indicative of warmer temperatures.   Surface observations valid at about the same time have been overlaid with the RGB image to provide temperature data context.  Air and dew point temperatures are around 10 degrees F cooler behind the line/front, but notice that the northerly wind shift is still on the south/east side of the line at such locations as Montgomery, AL and Columbus, GA.  At those locations, dew point temperatures were still 70 and 71 F, respectively, with air temperatures at 72 F.  So, the gradient in temperatures still lingered behind the surface front and is well depicted in the RGB imagery.  This type of information can be valuable to forecasters, as temperature, moisture, and wind characteristics are often complex in the vicinity of surface fronts.  Thus, while wind shifts may be observed initially, as in this case, the imagery shows the location of the temperature gradient much better.

The importance of this type of imagery is that it offers a much more effective assessment of meteorological phenomena than existing GOES imagery.  The only problem currently is the limitation of available imagery to forecasters, since these are from polar-orbiting platforms (Terra, Aqua, Suomi NPP), and thus provide just a few snapshots per night over a given location.  Nevertheless, the imagery form the VIIRS and MODIS instruments offer added value to existing GOES imagery and serve as valuable teaching and preparatory aids for future GOES-R and JPSS missions.

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