After a record [nearly] 12 years between landfalling major hurricanes [cat 3 or higher], the United States has now experienced two major hurricanes making landfall less than three weeks apart from one another. Hurricane Harvey brought exceptional record rainfall to southeastern Texas and southwestern Louisiana because it stalled shortly after landfall due to a lack of atmospheric steering currents. Less than 3 weeks later, Major Hurricane Irma made landfall twice in Florida: once in the Lower Keys and again near Marco Island on the southwestern coast. A long-lived cat 5 hurricane prior to landfall, Irma had a very large wind field which resulted in far-reaching impacts along the Florida East Coast, up to Charleston, SC, and inland to Atlanta, GA, with millions of households and businesses without electricity and/or water.
Here at the NASA SPoRT Center, we have been closely monitoring these two hurricanes through numerous social media and blog posts of unique satellite products and through SPoRT’s real-time instance of the NASA Land Information System (“SPoRT-LIS”). This blog post serves to compare the soil moisture responses to hurricanes Irma and Harvey rainfall, as depicted by the real-time SPoRT-LIS output. The Relative Soil Moisture (RSM) variable is shown throughout this article, since it takes into account the variations in soil composition by scaling the moisture availability between the wilting point (plants cannot uptake moisture) and saturation point (soil cannot hold any more water). The SPoRT-LIS runs the Noah land surface model, which estimates soil moisture through 4 layers: 0-10, 10-40, 40-100, and 100-200 cm depth. We first examine the response during Irma in the top 0-10 cm layer, followed by 0-100 cm layer for both storms, and then compare the total column (0-200 cm) values relative to historical values from a climatological database spanning 1981-2013 (33 years).
Figure 1 compares the weekly rainfall accumulation primarily from Hurricane Irma over the Southeastern U.S. to the August monthly rainfall total over Texas/Louisiana, primarily contributed from Hurricane Harvey during the final week of August. Rainfall from Irma was quite substantial in the Florida peninsula up to coastal South Carolina, where numerous locations measured over 10″ of rain in less than 2 days. Rainfall of 3-5″ extended inland to northern Georgia and central South Carolina, with lesser amounts generally below 3″ across eastern and northern Alabama (Fig 1, left panel). The highest totals were along the southwestern and eastern Florida coasts. This rainfall still pales in comparison to the widespread 20″+ that fell across a huge part of southeastern Texas and western Louisiana, albeit over a 5-6 day span. Highest totals exceeded 50″ near Beaumont/Port Arthur, TX!
Fig 1. Comparison of weekly rainfall estimate associated with Hurricane Irma (left), and August monthly rainfall estimate associated with Hurricane Harvey (right).
The 0-10 cm RSM animation in Fig 2 for hurricane Irma shows how quickly the top soil layer responds to incoming rainfall within the Noah land surface model in SPoRT-LIS. The heavy rainfall rates up to 4″ per hour or more led to a quick saturation during 10 September across the Florida peninsula, eventually extending up to coastal Georgia and South Carolina on the 11th. Similarly, as rainfall ends we can see the 0-10 cm RSM quickly decrease from south to north as the moisture infiltrates into deeper model layers and/or evaporates back to the atmosphere. We also see that the top soil layer does not completely saturate across interior Georgia and Alabama, likely due to lower rain rates, drier initial soils, and different soil composition compared to the fast-responding sandy soils across Florida.
Fig 2. Hourly animation of SPoRT-LIS 0-10 cm relative soil moisture (RSM) and Multi Radar Multi Sensor (MRMS) quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) from 0000 UTC 10 September through 1200 UTC 12 September 2017, associated with Hurricane Irma.
Meanwhile, the RSM averaged over the top 3 layers (0-100 cm; Fig 3) takes a longer time to moisten up during the heavy rainfall of Irma. We do see values approaching saturation across southwestern, central, and particularly northeastern Florida near the end of the rainfall event as the deeper soils have had an opportunity to recharge.
Over southeastern Texas and Louisiana (Fig 4), the 0-100 cm RSM animation shows how the prolonged, training heavy rainfall led to near saturation of the top meter of the Noah model, despite dry antecedent conditions (especially west of the Houston metro, where the RSM transitioned from less than 10% to nearly saturation!). The much longer rainfall duration with hurricane Harvey led to sustained higher values of soil moisture in the top one meter.
Fig 3. Hourly animation of SPoRT-LIS 0-100 cm RSM and MRMS QPE from 10-12 September 2017, associated with Hurricane Irma.
Fig 4. Hourly animation of SPoRT-LIS 0-100 cm RSM and MRMS QPE from 25-30 August 2017, associated with Hurricane Harvey.
Finally, the total column 0-200 cm layer can require months or years to respond to rainfall events (or lack thereof), depending on the soil composition. However, with major rainfall events like hurricanes Harvey and Irma, the total column RSM does respond dramatically and subsequently can depict substantial wet anomalies. To that end, the SPoRT-LIS has a daily, county-based climatological database of modeled soil moisture from 1981-2013 from which current conditions can be compared to depict anomalies via percentiles relative to the 33-year distribution. Fig 5 shows these percentiles color-coded to depict dry anomalies (less then 30th percentile) or wet anomalies (greater than 70th percentile) according to the scales beneath the figure.
Following hurricane Irma, we see that portions of southwestern and northeastern Florida have 0-200 cm RSM greater than the 98th percentile, as well as parts of west-central Georgia (Fig 5; left panel). In general, the extreme wet percentiles are fairly spotty across the domain. However, following hurricane Harvey (Fig 5; right panel), the 0-200 cm RSM percentiles are “off the charts” high, with dozens of counties experiencing soil moisture exceeding the [33-year] historical 98th percentile. In fact, the soil moisture was SO anomalously moist following hurricane Harvey that the average daily value across all of Jefferson County, TX (Beaumont/Port Arthur) exceeded all values in the entire 33-year database by the end of August! This unusual condition is highlighted in Fig 6, which shows a daily animation of historical 0-200 cm RSM histograms for Jefferson County, TX, with the current 2017 county-averaged values in the vertical dashed line. We see that by the end of hurricane Harvey, the vertical dashed line is well above any values from the 33-year historical distribution, thereby quantifying how exceptionally unusual this rainfall event was in southeastern Texas.
Fig 5. SPoRT-LIS 0-200 cm RSM percentile, valid at 1200 UTC on 12 September 2017 (post-Irma; left), and 30 August 2017 (post-Harvey; right).
Fig 6. Animation of daily distributions of 0-200 cm RSM for all SPoRT-LIS grid points residing in Jefferson County, TX (Beaumont/Port Arthur) during the month of August 2017. Gray bars are the frequencies of 0-200 cm RSM from the 33-year SPoRT-LIS climatology; colored vertical lines are reference percentiles according to the legend in the upper right; and the bold vertical dashed line is the county-averaged value for the present day in August 2017.