SPoRT-created training material now available via the new AIR Tool within AWIPS

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Training material now available for use by NWS forecasters via the new AIR tool within AWIPS. This example shows the SPoRT-created Nighttime Microphysics RGB Quick Guide.

NASA SPoRT has been working to get training materials available to NWS forecasters via the new AWIPS Integrated Reference (AIR) tool.  This Twitter post and attached video details how NWS forecasters can access the new training material.  This training is now available with the current POES RGB imagery, but will also be available once RGB imagery from GOES-16 is available in AWIPS. SPoRT will be working to add new training content within Vlab and accessible via the AIR tool in the coming months.

Dust RGB Imagery GOES Beyond Visible

The Dust RGB imagery product was originally developed by EUMETSAT for the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG) SEVIRI imager and later applied to the JMA Himawari-8 (H8) imager (same as GOES-16). Now the same capabilities are seen with the GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI).  NASA/SPoRT has transitioned this product to operational users since 2011 as part of the NOAA Satellite Proving Ground efforts to prepare users for this new geostationary era in the U.S.  SPoRT has co-authored an NWA/JOM article about the impacts this Dust RGB Imagery has already had in operation procedures via use with MODIS and VIIRS instruments. The value of the Dust RGB is the ability the user has to analyze dust plumes when single channel imagery, such as visible channels, do not adequately depict the dust feature.  In addition, true color imagery will often “miss” seeing dust because the underlying surface has a similar color to the dust itself.  And lastly, the Dust RGB allows one to continue monitoring the dust event in both day and night scenes.  Below is an example from a blowing dust event today (March 6, 2017) in the Nebraska and Colorado areas.  Note in the comparison image that the dust (shown in magenta coloring) is readily apparent compared to using single channel visible (0.64 micron, channel 2) imagery alone.  Further below are loops of the imagery for comparison.  Also, note that dry vs. moist air is apparent and another utility of the imagery will be the analysis of drylines in the deep south of the U.S.

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NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite has not been declared operational and its data are preliminary and undergoing testing. Users receiving these data through any dissemination means  (including, but not limited to, PDA and GRB) assume all risk related to their use of GOES-16 data and NOAA disclaims any and all warranties, whether express or implied, including (without limitation) any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

While the Dust RGB Imagery is not intuitive at first, one only has to look at the area over southern Nebraska  (see below) to see a streak of magenta that represents a dust plume.  The Dust RGB uses several infrared-based channels to differentiate various cloud characteristics and dust.  Particularly useful is the difference between channels 15 and 13 (i.e. 12.3 – 10.4 micron difference) that takes advantage of the low absorption by dust in channel 15, which results in a relatively large positive differnce.  This is the red component of the Dust RGB and it causes dust to have a greater amount of red compared to other cloud features.  The magenta color in the RGB results because the dust is relatively warm and the blue component of the RGB is the 10.4 micron channel which is sensitive to the thermal properties of the object.  In addition to the streak across Nebraska, the region of eastern Colorado also has a dust signature in the RGB.  At the time of this imagery, there were 40 kt wind gust and haze reported over this area, but the dewpoint temperatures were below zero degrees Celcius. While no dust was reported in the METAR observations at the time, it’s likely some type of blowing dust was causing the “haze” and some reduced visibility reports.

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GOES16-VIS-Example

NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite has not been declared operational and its data are preliminary and undergoing testing. Users receiving these data through any dissemination means  (including, but not limited to, PDA and GRB) assume all risk related to their use of GOES-16 data and NOAA disclaims any and all warranties, whether express or implied, including (without limitation) any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

Resources for the Dust RGB:

NASA/SPoRT Quick Guide: Dust RGB

SPoRT Application Library: Dust RGB Identifies Aviation Ceiling Hazard at KFMN (micro-lesson)

GOES-16 Air Mass RGB and NUCAPS Soundings

SPoRT has worked closely with the GOES-R and JPSS Proving Grounds to explore innovative applications for the Air Mass RGB and CrIS/ATMS NUCAPS Soundings.  Specific applications include identification of stratospheric air influence and tropopause folding to anticipate rapid cyclogenesis and hurricane tropical to extratropical transition.

When the Air Mass RGB was first introduced to NOAA NWS National Center forecasters in 2012, SPoRT developed a total column ozone product from the NASA AIRS instrument (a hyperspectral infrared sounder) as a way to help forecasters gain confidence in interpreting the qualitative RGB.  Since that time SPoRT has continued to develop quantitative ozone products such as the ozone anomaly and tropopause height products from additional hyperspectral infrared sensors such as CrIS/ATMS and IASI.

More recently, CrIS/ATMS NUCAPS Soundings were added to AWIPS-II for forecasters to utilize in operations.  SPoRT has specifically explored the utility of NUCAPS Soundings for hurricane tropical to extratropical transition (see link to training material).   With the availability of the GOES-16 Air Mass RGB and NUCAPS Soundings in AWIPS-II there is an opportunity to explore rapid cyclogenesis cases and extratropical transition events with next-generation satellite capabilities.  Since we have the capability to display the client-side generated Air Mass RGB here at SPoRT, here is a quick preview of how the NUCAPS Soundings can be used to compliment the Air Mass RGB.

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GOES-16 AWIPS-II client-side generated Air Mass RGB 3 March 1817 UTC

Please note, the GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. Users bear all responsibility for inspecting the data prior to use and for the manner in which the data are utilized.

The Air Mass RGB is able to detect temperature and moisture characteristics in the mid- to upper levels of the atmosphere.  Warm, dry air upper level air appears in red/orange tones. Dry upper level air appears more red when associated with anomalous potential vorticity as warm, dry, ozone-rich air is pulled downward by the jet stream circulation.   Dry upper levels away from the jet stream appear orange. In contrast warm, moist tropical air appears in green tones, appearing more olive when less moisture is present.

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Air Mass RGB interpretation guide adapted from EUMETSAT (Zavodsky et al. 2013)

In the Air Mass RGB image above you can see a well-defined upper-level temperature and moisture boundary across the southern U.S. associated with yesterday’ s passing frontal system.  NUCAPS Soundings can provide additional information about the thermodynamic and stability characteristics of the lower-levels of the atmosphere which cannot be deciphered in the Air Mass RGB.  The Sounding at Location 1 shows a mostly dry atmospheric column, which is typical for the orange colored regions (i.e dry upper levels) in the RGB, note however there are moister conditions around 850 mb.    The Soundings at Location 2 and 3 in the green colored regions (i.e. moist upper levels)  confirm moist upper-level conditions.  What the NUCAPS Soundings reveal is a layer of much drier mid-level air between about 850-400 mb, which cannot be detected in the Air Mass RGB.  The ability to detect such a layer can be important in data sparse regions.  Although this is a benign weather situation where much of the Southeast enjoyed sunny, cool, and dry conditions today, this same technique can be applied to more intense, high impact events to assess the thermodynamic environment surrounding a developing low pressure system or weakening hurricane where moist or dry layers can have an impact on storm intensity.

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AWIPS-II CrIS/ATMS NUCAPS Sounding 3 March 2017 1817 UTC at Location 1

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AWIPS-II CrIS/ATMS NUCAPS Sounding 3 March 1817 UTC at Location 2

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AWIPS-II CrIS/ATMS NUCAPS Sounding 3 March 2017 1817 UTC at Location 3

 

For more information regarding the Air Mass RGB, including applications and interpretation guides for the color features in the imagery:

The Nighttime Microphysics RGB from GOES-16 ABI

The Nighttime Microphysics (NtMicro) RGB imagery provides multiple cloud characteristics of thickness, particle phase/size, and height within a single image in order to analyze cloud features. Below is an example of the NtMicro RGB from the full disk scans taken every 15 minutes.

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Nighttime Microphysics RGB from GOES-16 from 0610 UTC to 1225 UTC on 3 March 2017.

 

Please note, the GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. Users bear all responsibility for inspecting the data prior to use and for the manner in which the data are utilized.

The NtMicro RGB imagery (below) over Florida in the early morning of 3 March 2017 show a variety of clouds in the scene.  In southern Florida, various shades of aqua represent low, water clouds where surface observations indicated ceilings of 1000-1500 ft (MVFR conditions).  Slightly further north in central Florida, cloud tops are represented by more tan/yellowish coloring with the RGB representing thicker, colder clouds with larger particles.  This suggests clouds that are a bit higher above the ground.  Continuing northward the cloud features are seen streaming to the east, northeast.  These clouds have mostly dark coloring suggesting little contribution from all the color components (red, green, blue).  The purple clouds are thin, mid-level clouds with ice.  One can tell that the clouds are thin because the underlying surface (land vs water) influences the resulting shade of color as the cloud passes over.  The dark blue is very thin, cold cirrus clouds while the dark red represents similar cirrus clouds but with slightly thicker characteristics.  Also note that some bright red clouds appear over the Gulf Stream (right side of image) representing very thick, cold ice tops of convection.   Overall, quite a number of cloud features can be seen in this IR-based RGB in a very efficient product.

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Nighttime Microphysics RGB over Florida from GOES-16 0701 UTC to 1156 UTC on 3 March 2017. Aqua colored clouds depicting impacts to TAF sites experiencing MVFR ceilings.

 

Please note, the GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. Users bear all responsibility for inspecting the data prior to use and for the manner in which the data are utilized.

For more information regarding the Nighttime Microphysics RGB, including interpretation guides for the color features in the imagery:

SPoRT Quick Guide: Nighttime Microphysics RGB in the SPoRT Training Site

SPoRT Nighttime Microphysics RGB Fundamentals (Module) ~20 minutes

AGU EOS Project Update: Transforming Satellite Data to Weather Forecasts

GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager Day 2: Loops!

Today GOES-16 data started flowing over the AWIPS Satellite Broadcast Network (SBN/NOAAPort) data feed.  SPoRT is able to ingest this data into a test AWIPS system to view and analyze the imagery.  Over the past several years, SPoRT has had an active role in transitioning proxy GOES-R multispectral (i.e. RGB) imagery derived from polar-orbiting sensors to prepare NWS offices and National Centers for advanced capabilities available with GOES-16.  Below is animation of the Air Mass RGB in which forecasters can use to analyze temperature and moisture characteristics surrounding synoptic scale systems and stratospheric air intrusions to anticipate rapid cyclogenesis. Warm, dry, ozone-rich upper level air with anomalous potential vorticity can be identified in tones or orange and red and indicate the potential for stratospheric air influence on a developing cyclone (see interpretation guide below). Although this RGB is not available to NWS forecasters today, SPoRT is working with the Total Operational Weather Readiness – Satellites (TOWR-S) team to transition the capability to derive client side RGBs in AWIPS-II to NWS offices.

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2 March 2017 AWIPS II Client Side dervied Airmass RGB 2011 UTC to 2131 UTC

Please note, the GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. Users bear all responsibility for inspecting the data prior to use and for the manner in which the data are utilized.

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Interpretation guide for the Air Mass RGB, adapted from the EUMETSAT (Zavodsky et. al 2013)

For more information regarding the Air Mass RGB, including interpretation guides for the color features in the imagery:

Recalling our blog post from yesterday, we had a loop that showed  an hour long loop of data every 5 minutes from the ABI as severe storms moved through the north Alabama area. We spent more time going over all the data received through the GOES Rebroadcast (GRB) data transmission system receiver located here at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Below is a loop of higher temporal resolution (1 minute) data from the same storm system using one of the GOES-16 mesoscale domains.

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One minute imagery from Band 2 of the GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) taken during the early afternoon on 1 March 2017.

Please note, the GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. Users bear all responsibility for inspecting the data prior to use and for the manner in which the data are utilized.

GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager Data Observes Severe Weather Event on Day 1!

Today marks the first day that the beta-mode Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data have been made available from GOES-16.  NASA SPoRT is obtaining the ABI data via the GOES Rebroadcast (GRB) data transmission system receiver located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

Mother Nature provided some active weather through the Tennessee River Valley today as SPoRT team members worked to produce imagery from the receiver.  Below is a one hour animation of ABI data from 1817 to 1917 UTC updating every 5 minutes.  This shows Band 2 visible 0.64 µm imagery at a resolution of 0.5 km.  The imagery shows the line of storms as it entered northern Alabama.

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GOES-16 ABI 0.64 um visible imagery from 1817 to 1917 UTC on 1 March 2017.  These data come from the GOES Rebroadcast (GRB) data transmission system receiver located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. (Full resolution)

Please note, the GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. Users bear all responsibility for inspecting the data prior to use and for the manner in which the data are utilized.

For comparison, the following figure below shows the same ABI 0.64 µm imagery at 2006 UTC (0.5 km) side-by-side with the existing GOES-13 visible data at 2007 UTC (1 km).  Notice the impressive detail observed with the higher resolution GOES-16 imagery!

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Comparison of GOES-16 ABI 0.64 um (left, 2006 UTC – 0.5 km) and the GOES-13 Imager (right, 2007 UTC – 1 km) on 1 March 2017.  The yellow circle highlights an overshooting top in Jackson County, Alabama.  These data come from the GOES Rebroadcast (GRB) data transmission system receiver and the GVAR receiver, both located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. (Full resolution)

Please note, the GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational data and are undergoing testing. Users bear all responsibility for inspecting the data prior to use and for the manner in which the data are utilized.

Nighttime Microphysics for GOES-16

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The Nighttime Microphysics RGB Imagery, provided by S-NPP VIIRS in above image, efficiently highlights the low cloud and fog areas in aqua to dull gray, to allow forecasters to better see where hazards exist to transportation (aviation, public, or marine).  This VIIRS image also provides forecasters with a look at the new geostationary capabilities that will be available soon with GOES-16 ABI.  This Nighttime Microphysics RGB Imagery was originally created by EUMETSAT around 2006, transitioned by NASA/SPoRT to forecasters within the NOAA Satellite Proving Ground over the last 5 years, and recently adopted by GOES-16 as one of the many RGB products that will be available to better utilize the ABI three fold increase in the number of bands over the current GOES imager. Currently, the Nighttime Microphysics RGB Imagery from VIIRS as well as several AVHRR and MODIS instruments is regularly used by forecasters in operations, which has allowed them to gain experience in preparation for this new capability from GOES-16.

On February 8, 2017 Dense Fog Advisories were in place across the Gulf Coast and parts of the Southeast (see image below) and there have been many similar events in the region for this winter.

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Near 1000 UTC (~4:00am CST) large areas of low ceilings and visibility were occurring in the advisory regions, as seen in the first image of the post.  In the images below, take a look at how the Nighttime Microphysics RGB Imagery (this time from NOAA-19/AVHRR) compares to using a single longwave infrared channel in the split scene of the Gulf Coast region and then compare this with the same scene where only the Nighttime Microphysics  RGB Imagery is shown.  Note that the fog and clear areas can look similar in the infrared image and that the fog itself is a bit warmer than the ground areas in Texas. For help interpreting these types of images, NASA/SPoRT has RGB Quick Guides available at  https://weather.msfc.nasa.gov/sport/training/ .

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