Lightning’s Reach

Over the weekend of October 22, thunderstorms moved through eastern Texas.  One feature that stood out was the number of flashes that extended well behind the main convective line of storms.  The image below shows where lightning was observed for one minute at 1258 UTC.  The overall Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) event density display shows the lightning activity in a broken line from just west of Austin, Texas eastward towards Lake Charles, Louisiana.  Overall, the lightning remained fairly close to the parent storm.

The image is much more dramatic one minute later at 1259 UTC.  Here, GLM observes lightning extending from Austin, Texas all the way to Bryan and Waco, Texas and continuing northeast of Tyler, Texas.  Just from Bryan to Tyler, Texas this extends approximately 145 miles!



NOTE:  NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite has not been declared operational and its data are preliminary and undergoing testing. Users receiving these data through any dissemination means  (including, but not limited to, PDA and GRB) assume all risk related to their use of GOES-16 data and NOAA disclaims any and all warranties, whether express or implied, including (without limitation) any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.


Utilizing Total Lightning and the Tracking Meteogram Tool to Assist in the Warning Decision Making Process

Herein is an example of the Tracking Meteogram Tool, which was developed by NASA SPoRT, being used to track and create a time series plot of the total lightning associated with a thunderstorm at the National Weather Service forecast office in New Braunfels, TX (Austin/San Antonio – EWX). The information gleaned by the time series plot from the tracking meteogram tool assisted in the warning decision making process.

For full disclosure, I have a background in total lightning and its operational uses in severe weather operations. My Master’s thesis at the University of Alabama in Huntsville was on the utility of total lightning and the lightning jump to assist in the quasi-linear convective system (QLCS) tornado warning decision process. Also, as a CIMMS research associate at the NWS Warning Decision Training Division, I developed a four-part series on best practices for using total lightning to assist in storm interrogation for various convective modes and severe hazards. I have been an intern at the NWS forecast office in New Braunfels, TX since May 2016.

On the evening of November 1st, 2016, there were isolated thunderstorms in the forecast across the Interstate 35 corridor between San Antonio and Austin, but severe weather of any sort was not anticipated across our area. The Storm Prediction Center convective outlook highlighted the eastern half of our CWA for possible thunderstorms, but did not have even a marginal risk area outlined.


Storm Prediction Center (SPC) Convective Outlook product issued at 1z on November 2nd, 2016 (8 pm CDT on November 1st, 2016).

On this particular shift, I was working the public service desk, while my colleague Nick Hampshire, a lead forecaster at EWX, was working the short-term forecast desk. Given my background in total lightning, I typically overlay the one minute 5 km by 5 km Earth Networks Total Lightning Detection Network (ENTLN) total lightning product on top of reflectivity for situational awareness purposes. Isolated showers and thunderstorms began initiating across the region around 6-7 pm that evening. These showers and storms were, as expected, fairly mundane and short lived, only producing light to moderate rainfall before the updraft was cut off and the storm dissipated. When the showers did manage to produce lightning, the lightning frequency was low and short lived.

Around 7:40 pm, a shower initiated east of Seguin, moving northward toward the cities of San Marcos and Austin. By the time it reached San Marcos around 8:20 pm, the shower began producing lightning. As the storm progressed northward toward the city of Austin, the total lightning flash rates continued to increase. To monitor the time series trend of the total flash rate, I used the Tracking Meteogram Tool and configured it to display the sum of the values, thereby plotting all the lightning being produced by the storm at any one time. I noticed a steady increase in the lightning flash rate that coincided with and even slightly preceded the strengthening of the storm as determined by radar signatures. A quick interrogation using radar and the standard environmental package from LAPS of the storm at around 8:51 pm showed 50+ dBZ echoes up to beyond the -30 degree Celsius level (~30,000 feet).

20161101 EWX Storm NASA post.png

4-panel display of reflectivity at different tilts from KEWX radar at 8:51 pm CDT on November 1st, 2016 (0151 UTC on November 2nd, 2016).

The total flash rate at this time was 46 flashes per minute, and the flash rate had increased from 34 flashes per minute at 8:47 pm to a local maximum of 47 flashes per minute at 8:52 pm. Given the radar signatures as well as the rapid increasing trend in total flash rate, Mr. Hampshire and I decided that a Significant Weather Advisory was warranted. In the text product, we mentioned pea to nickel sized hail associated with this storm. The SPS was issued around 8:52 pm. We received a few reports of pea sized hail in southwest Austin on social media shortly after 9 pm (2z).


1 minute ENTLN total lightning 5 km grid with tracking meteogram tool (left) and time series plot of total lightning for the storm of interest from 0133 UTC (8:33 pm CDT) to 0204 UTC (9:04 pm CDT) on November 2nd, 2016 (November 1st, 2016)



Radar loop from KEWX from 0054 UTC (7:54 pm CDT) to 0210 UTC (9:10 pm CDT) on November 2nd, 2016 (November 1st, 2016)

This case demonstrated the value of total lightning and the tracking meteogram tool. Given the forecast and the atmospheric environment, severe weather was not anticipated. However, it was the large, rapid increase in total lightning that initially prompted my attention to this storm and caused me to delve further into interrogating the severe potential. Had I not had the total lightning information available to me, the Significant Weather Advisory almost certainly would have come out later and perhaps not at all. Granted, this storm did not meet severe criteria, but not having any product issued for pea sized hail when hail of any size was not in the forecast would not have been an ideal situation, and the value added from the total lightning was still noteworthy.


Tweet posted from the NWS Austin/San Antonio twitter account shortly after the storm had passed through Austin, dropping pea sized hail.


Lightning in Hurricane Joaquin

I wanted to post a different way of viewing Hurricane Joaquin using lightning data.  Until GOES-R is launched and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is available, forecasters rely on long-range terrestrial lightning networks to get a view inside tropical systems.  In this example from the Ocean Prediction Center (OPC), the lightning density comes from Vaisala’s GLD360 network.  Unlike the lightning mapping array (LMA) networks SPoRT collaborates with, the GLD360 primarily observes cloud-to-ground strokes, but will occasionally observe strong intra-cloud flashes (although the network does not distinguish between the two).  The interesting feature here is the nearly concentric ring of lightning stroke densities around the eye, although some strong storms are observed to the southwest.  Research at CIRA and the National Hurricane Center has been investigating the impact on rapid tropical cyclone intensification based on whether the lightning densities are greatest in the inner core or outer rain bands.  There is a great deal of interest in observing the relationship between tropical cyclone development/intensity and total lightning, which will be available once GLM is launched and can be compared to the work ongoing with the GLD360.

The latest animations can be viewed at the OPC web page: OPC IR and GLD360 animations

An image of Hurricane Joaquin with IR imagery overlaid with 30 minutes of Vaisala's GLD360 lightning stroke density at 1445 UTC on October 1, 2015. The image was produced by the Ocean Prediction Center.

An image of Hurricane Joaquin with IR imagery overlaid with 30 minutes of Vaisala’s GLD360 lightning stroke density (8×8 km) at 1445 UTC on October 1, 2015. Note the ring of lightning surrounding the eye of the hurricane.  The image was produced by the Ocean Prediction Center.

NALMA Observations with Non-severe Storms

Many discussions about the utility of the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) focus on the utility of the observations in providing additional lead times for severe weather warnings.  However, the past week has highlighted several cases where the NALMA data have been beneficial to forecasters in a non-severe environment as SPoRT conducts an intensive evaluation of the network this month and into June.

All of SPoRT’s partner NWS offices using NALMA data have expressed the utility of the data with “pulse” type thunderstorms that form and dissipate quickly and sometimes result in brief severe weather.  The NALMA has been used for situational awareness to see which storms observed on radar may require additional attention.

This was used on Memorial Day weekend by forecasters from the Huntsville office.  At 2:40 pm a  storm was moving northward towards the city of Decatur, Alabama where the Alabama Jubilee was being held.  As the forecasters said,

Radar showed that the storm was clearly building, but we were able to provide additional lightning information to the [Morgan County] EMA with about 20-25 minutes of lead time.

This additional information ensured that everyone had a safe holiday when the storm moved over Decatur around 3:05 pm.

The following day, the Morristown, Tennessee NWS office used the NALMA data to update their Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) for the Chattanooga airport.  In the survey submitted by the Morristown Science and Operations Officer,

I utilized the NALMA to help in the TAF decision making process.  The national [cloud-to-ground] lightning data did not have any lightning strikes with a line of convection moving north out of Georgia.  However, the NALMA did pick up on the growing number of [intra-cloud] flashes, which gave me a heads up to include thunder in the TAF.  Lighting was reported at the Chattanooga TAF site during the next couple of hours.

Both of these are small, localized cases, but hightlight the potential of the NALMA observations to help provide lightning safety to the public and aviation interests.